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Gothic: Pointed Arches and Windows

Gothic architecture is defined by arches and windows forming a single central point

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Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire: the south front seen from the graveyard

RIBA5617
NOTES: This Benedictine abbey was consecrated in 1180. The walls and windows of the upper storey of the abbey were remodelled at the beginning of the 14th century. It was dissolved in 1539 and served as the parish church thereafter.

Southwell Minster, Nottinghamshire: blind arcading in the chapter house

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NOTES: Considered an outstanding example of Norman and Early English architecture, this church was built between 1120 and 1286. It became the Cathedral Church of Nottinghamshire in 1884. Extensive restoration, which included the rebuilding of the nave roof, was undertaken by Ewan Christian in 1851-1888.

Rievaulx Abbey, North Yorkshire: the nave

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NOTES: The first church for this large Cistercian monastery, founded by St Bernard of Clairvaux in 1132, was built between 1135 and 1145. The monastic buildings were extended in 1145-1167 and the chancel was rebuilt in a more elaborate style in c.1230. The abbey was dissolved in 1538.

Palazzo Ducale (Doge's Palace), Venice, seen from St. Mark's Square

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NOTES: The Doge's Palace is also known as the Palazzo Ducale.

Elgin Cathedral, Moray: the west end wall seen from the south choir aisle

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NOTES: Know as the 'Lantern of the North', this cathedral was established at Elgin in 1224. The cathedral and chanonry were badly damaged by fire in 1270, 1390 and 1402. It was abandoned in 1560 and left to fall into steady decay.

Rievaulx Abbey, North Yorkshire: the choir seen from the south

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NOTES: The first church for this large Cistercian monastery, founded by St Bernard of Clairvaux in 1132, was built between 1135 and 1145. The monastic buildings were extended in 1145-1167 and the chancel was rebuilt in a more elaborate style in c.1230. The abbey was dissolved in 1538.

Ca' d' Oro, Venice: the external staircase and well-head in the entrance courtyard

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Bon, Bartolomeo, the Elder (c. 1405-1464 or 65)
NOTES: The well-head by Bartolomeo Bon dates from 1427. The original staircase, demolished in the mid-19th century, was rebuilt at the beginning of the 20th.

Abbaye du Mont St Michel: cloisters of the 'Merveille'

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NOTES: The cloisters form the west half of the upper storey of the monastery proper, also known as the 'Merveille'.

Nidaros Cathedral, Trondheim: a Gothic portal

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Schirmer, Heinrich Ernst (1814-1887)
NOTES: Construction on this cathedral began in Romanesque style in c.1070 and was completed in Gothic style in c.1300. Ravaged by fire several times, major rebuilding and restoration work on the building began in 1869 under the direction of Heinrich Ernst Schirmer and was only completed in 1969.

Southwell Minster, Nottinghamshire: the entrance to the chapter house

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NOTES: Considered an outstanding example of Norman and Early English architecture, this church was built between 1120 and 1286. It became the Cathedral Church of Nottinghamshire in 1884. Extensive restoration, which included the rebuilding of the nave roof, was undertaken by Ewan Christian in 1851-1888.

Norwich Cathedral: the north cloister

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NOTES: Construction on the cathedral began in 1096 in the Romanesque style, and the body of the church was completed by c. 1145. But later additions were in the Gothic style. The nave and chancel with its ribbed stone vault was added from c. 1472-1499 under Bishop Goldwell (replacing an original timber roof). The clerestory was added at the same time and the spire was completed in 1485. The cloister was rebuilt between 1300-1400, but retains its original dimensions of 56.5 metres by 56.5 metres and was the largest Romanesque cloister in England. There are three styles of tracery in the cloister: the geometric work in the east (1299-1314), the decorated curvilinear tracery of the south and west (1314-1356), and the perpendicular style of the north (1382-c. 1400).

Church of St Peter, Great Walsingham, Norfolk: looking across to the side aisle

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NOTES: The church is mainly 14th century with some later additions. The original chancel was demolished some time in the 16th century, but fragments remain. The porch was added in the 15th century and the interior fittings also date from then.

Church of St Mary, Snettisham, Norfolk: the nave looking east

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NOTES: The church is 14th century, with some late 19th century restoration. The spire was rebuilt in 1895 and at 175 feet is one of the tallest in the county. The original chancel was 40 feet long, but was demolished in the late 16th century.

Ely Cathedral: detail of blind arcading

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NOTES: The lower two thirds of the west tower is 12th century while the upper third was added c. 1400. The transept dates from the third quarter of the 12th century.

All Saints Church, Icklingham, Suffolk: the side aisle looking east

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A thatched church with a Norman nave, the rest is 13th and 14th century. The church was restored by W.M. Fawcett in 1903.

St Mary Magdalene, Ickleton, Cambridgeshire: looking towards the 14th century rood screen

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NOTES: The church is a mixture of periods, 12th, 13th and 14th centuries. The interior is largely Norman with reused Roman columns in the nave. The nave was heightened in the 14th century. The chancel was rebuilt in 1882-1883. The church also has a distinctive lead broach spire.

Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Lavenham, Suffolk: looking towards the side aisle from the nave

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Caroe, William Douglas (1857-1938)
NOTES: The church was built between 1486-1525; the tower dates from 1486-1495, with the upper parts constructed as part of the second building campaign 1517-1525. The interior of the church was restored by by F. C. Penrose in 1861-1867 with further repairs and reordering by W. D. Caroe; 1909-1910.

St Mary, Mildenhall, Suffolk: view across the nave from the side aisle

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Farrow, Thomas
NOTES: The oldest parts of the church date from c. 1240-1300. They are the north chapel, chancel, east end and east window (c. 1300). The rest of the church was built 1441-1478, including the tower, which was restored in 1864. A general restoration was carried out in 1849, including the interior and re-roofing of the chancel by Thomas Farrow. In 1875-1876 the south porch was rebuilt as part of the restoration of the south aisle, possibly by J. D. Wyatt.

Wells Cathedral, Somerset: detail of the scissor-arches

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NOTES: Construction on the original cathedral began in 1180 and was completed by the Lady Chapel in 1326. The nave was completed in 1220-1229. The scissor-arches (inverted strainer arches) were built c. 1338-1348 to support the tower when the foundations of the two western piers sank into the ground.

Lincoln Cathedral: the double arcading in the south aisle of St Hugh's Choir

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NOTES: The building of the cathedral comprised three main periods; from 1072-1092; 1191 to c. 1250; and 1256 to c. 1300, with some alterations and additions to the towers in the 14th and 15th centuries. St Hugh's Choir dates from c. 1200.

Lincoln Cathedral: triforium on the west wall of the east transept

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NOTES: The building of the cathedral comprised three main periods; from 1072-1092; 1191 to c. 1250; and 1256 to c. 1300, with some alterations and additions to the towers in the 14th and 15th centuries.

Holyrood Abbey, Edinburgh: ruins of the abbey church

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SOURCE: Patrick Gibson. Select views in Edinburgh (Edinburgh, 1818), pl. VI NOTES: This Augustinian abbey was founded in 1128 by David I of Scotland and the church was completed by 1230. It was partly rebuilt in 1544 and heavily restored in 1916.

Southwell Minster, Nottinghamshire: arcading of the choir

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SOURCE: William Dickinson Rastall. A History of the antiquities of the town and church of Southwell, in the county of Nottingham (London, 1787), facing p. 48 NOTES: Considered an outstanding example of Norman and Early English architecture, this church was built between 1120 and 1286. It became the Cathedral Church of Nottinghamshire in 1884. Extensive restoration, which included the rebuilding of the nave roof, was undertaken by Ewan Christian in 1851-1888.

Church of St Quiriace, Provins: elevation, plan and section of triforium arches

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NOTES: In addition to being a landscape and architectural painter, lithographer and archaeologist, Bouet was also appointed Inspecteur de la Societe Francaise d'Archeologie. This drawing is one of a number of topographical studies and details of French, German, Italian and Swiss medieval architecture executed by him between around 1850 and 1865.

Wells Cathedral, Somerset: the scissor-arches seen from the south transept

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NOTES: Construction on the original cathedral began in 1180 and was completed by the Lady Chapel in 1326. The nave was completed in 1220-1229. The scissor-arches (inverted strainer arches) were built c. 1338-1348 to support the tower when the foundations of the two western piers sank into the ground.

Lincoln Cathedral: the altar

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NOTES: The building of the cathedral comprised three main periods; from 1072-1092; 1191 to c. 1250; and 1256 to c. 1300, with some alterations and additions to the towers in the 14th and 15th centuries.
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