By the beginning of the 1950s, Modernism has become the style associated with the twentieth century and used in all manner of buildings. The architecture, whether a grand project such as Brasilia or a block of flats like The Lawn, Harlow is assured and elegant.
NOTES: The city of Brasilia was planned and developed in 1956 with Lucio Costa as chief urban planner and Oscar Niemeyer as principal architect. It formally became the capital of Brazil in 1960 and is the seat of all three branches of the Brazilian government. The National Congress buildings completed in 1958, comprise the Federal Senate, the Chamber of Deputies and the administrative twin Towers of Congress.
NOTES: Built in 1958 as part of the reconstruction of Coventry after World War II, this theatre was named in honour of the Yugoslav gift of timber used to help reconstruct the city. The theatre is a good example of the 'Festival' or 'Contemporary' style.
NOTES: Harlow New Town, together with the London orbital developments of Basildon, Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead, was built after World War II to ease overcrowding in London. The masterplan for the town was drawn up by Frederick Gibberd in 1947. It is notable for being the location of the first pedestrian precinct and The Lawn, the first residential tower in Britain.
NOTES: The Alton Estate is situated between Putney Heath and Richmond Park in south-west London. The smaller south-east part, Alton East, was built in 1952-1955, while the much larger north-west part, Alton West, was built in 1955-1959.
NOTES: Basil Spence was commissioned in 1954 by the local Anglican diocese to design three low-cost parish churches to serve the new residential suburbs around Coventry: St Oswald's, Tile Hill; St John the Divine, Willenhall; and St Chad's, Bell Green. Each church is individually detailed but all are characterized by a freestanding campanile.
NOTES: The Spa Green Estate initiated a mass housing programme for the London Borough of Finsbury. The design as executed differed little from that first proposed by Tecton to the Borough Council in 1938 although this was conceived as part of a much wider plan to provide the borough with a whole range of much needed facilities, including the Finsbury Health Centre. Immediately after World War II the Finsbury Plan was abandoned and efforts were concentrated on alleviating the chronic housing shortage. The design for the estate was a development of the one which Tecton had submitted to the competition for working-class flats in 1935 and incorporated a number of new features including the Garchey system for refuse disposal (used in England only once before - at Quarry Hill, Leeds), and an aerofoil-shaped section in the roof to allow clothes to dry. This latter idea was developed in conjunction with the scientist, Hyman Levy. The estate was completed in 1950 by Skinner, Bailey & Lubetkin.
NOTES: Tecton were responsible for the masterplan, which was given Town Planning consent in 1948, and Skinner, Bailey & Lubetkin were responsible for its development and execution. See RIBA141108 for negative verson of this image.