NOTES: Visby is the former Hanseatic post on Gotland and remains the only city on the island. It is one of the best-preserved medieval cities in Sweden. The Ringmuren (ring wall), built from c.1250, is 3.4 km long and is almost complete with 27 towers remaining out of 29. Construction on the Cathedral (Domkyrkan S:ta Maria) also began in the mid-13th century.
NOTES: Situated at the estuary of the Trave River, Lubeck is the largest German port on the Baltic Sea and was for several centuries the prime port of the Hanseatic League. The Burgtor, the north gate to the old city, is one of two towered gates remaining from the old fortifications, the other being the Holstentor. It was designed by the city builder, Nikolaus Peck, and completed in 1444.
NOTES: Once a separate royal palace built by Bernard Aton Trencavel, this castle was converted into a citadel, consisting of a double ring of ramparts and 53 towers, when Carcassonne became part of the royal estate in 1226. The citadel was was restored by Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc in 1853-1879. After Viollet's death the restorations were completed to his designs by his pupil Paul Boeswillwald. Later the architect Henri Nodet carried out further restoration work.
NOTES: This drawing depicts the the facade with three bays instead of the five which can be seen in reality. The Porta Palio (or Porta Stuppa) replaced a medieval gateway in the city walls and was built between 1550 and 1561 (being finished after Sanmicheli's death).