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City walls

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Berger gate, Nordlingen, Bavaria

NOTES: Ther Berger gate was built in 1435-1436 on the site of the former keep (Zwinger). The upper storey of the tower was added in 1574-1575.

Porta San Sebastiano, Aurelian Wall, Rome

NOTES: This is the largest and best preserved gateway in the Aurelian walls. It was built in the 5th century and restored in the 6th. The towers, resting on basements of marble blocks, are medieval.

Medieval city of Visby, Gotland: view of the Ringmuren from the roof of the Domkyrkan

NOTES: Visby is the former Hanseatic post on Gotland and remains the only city on the island. It is one of the best-preserved medieval cities in Sweden. The Ringmuren (ring wall), built from c.1250, is 3.4 km long and is almost complete with 27 towers remaining out of 29. Construction on the Cathedral (Domkyrkan S:ta Maria) also began in the mid-13th century.

Altstadt, Lubeck: perspective view of the Burgtor and surrounding buildings

Peck, Nikolaus
NOTES: Situated at the estuary of the Trave River, Lubeck is the largest German port on the Baltic Sea and was for several centuries the prime port of the Hanseatic League. The Burgtor, the north gate to the old city, is one of two towered gates remaining from the old fortifications, the other being the Holstentor. It was designed by the city builder, Nikolaus Peck, and completed in 1444.

Porte Narbonnaise, Carcassonne: sketch of the turrets of the gateway and surrounding roofs seen from the parapet of the walls

Viollet-le-Duc, Eugene Emmanuel (1814-1879)
NOTES: Once a separate royal palace built by Bernard Aton Trencavel, this castle was converted into a citadel, consisting of a double ring of ramparts and 53 towers, when Carcassonne became part of the royal estate in 1226. The citadel was was restored by Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc in 1853-1879. After Viollet's death the restorations were completed to his designs by his pupil Paul Boeswillwald. Later the architect Henri Nodet carried out further restoration work.

Porta Palio, Verona: elevation and plan of the gateway within the city walls

Sanmicheli, Michele (1484-1559)
NOTES: This drawing depicts the the facade with three bays instead of the five which can be seen in reality. The Porta Palio (or Porta Stuppa) replaced a medieval gateway in the city walls and was built between 1550 and 1561 (being finished after Sanmicheli's death).