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Brutalism: Rough Surfaces

An emphasis on materials, particularly exposed concrete, rough brickwork with some steel and wood.

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Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California

Kahn, Louis Isidore (1901-1974)

Robin Hood Gardens, Tower Hamlets, London: the garden facade of the seven-storey slab block

Alison & Peter Smithson
NOTES: This council housing estate in east London covers about five acres and consists of two long blocks, one of ten storeys, the other of seven, built from precast concrete slabs.

Canongate housing development, Royal Mile, Edinburgh

Sir Basil Spence Glover & Ferguson

Civic Centre, Paisley (Phases 2 and 3): the south vestibule showing the exposed concrete walls

Hutchison Locke & Monk
NOTES: Paisley Civic Centre was built in four phases from 1969-1973. Phase 1 was completed in 1969, Phases 2 and 3 were completed by 1972 and Phase 4 containing the dining facilities was finished in early 1973. The council suite and chamber for both the county (Renfrew) and the borough (Paisley), which were part of Phase 4, were put on hold pending local government reorganisation.

Consort House, Queensway, London

Owen Luder Partnership

Brunel University, Uxbridge, London: concrete detail

Richard Sheppard Robson & Partners
NOTES: The master plan for Brunel was drawn up in 1965 by Richard Sheppard and the main buildings were completed by 1971, including the communal buildings, residences and lecture theatres.

Barbican Estate, City of London: detail of the curved balconies

Chamberlin Powell & Bon
NOTES: This complex of arts buildings and housing covers seven acres in the City of London. Built between 1971 and 1982, it regenerated an area which had been badly bombed during World War II.

Hayward Gallery, South Bank Arts Centre, London: the staircase

Greater London Council. Department of Architecture & Civic Design
NOTES: The South Bank Arts Centre, known as the Southbank Centre since 2002, comprises the Royal Festival Hall (completed in 1951), the Queen Elizabeth Hall and the Purcell Room (completed in 1967), and the Hayward Gallery (completed in 1968).