Modernism is in its infancy in the 1920s. Ideas about the role of architecture and the architect are being expressed by its pioneers, Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier. Their focus in the early years is on sleek lines, simple shapes and experiments with materials (i.e. reinforced concrete) and methods of construction (curtain walling).
Although such experiments were carried out before the First World War their impact is taken up more fully after 1918. Both Le Corbusier and Gropius publish manifestos on architecture, encapsulating ideas of modern construction (i.e. standardisation and mass production) and socially orientated architecture which could apply to all. This was particularly relevant after the First World War, as there was a shortage of housing across Europe. In Germany and Holland new housing estates were built along Modernist lines.