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St Mary the Virgin, Thame, Oxfordshire, seen from nearby pastures

NOTES: This cruciform church is principally Norman in construction.

Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, Altamura, Puglia: the main portal flanked by a carved lion

NOTES: This is one of the four Palatine basilicas of Puglia. Construction began in Romanesque style in 1232 and it was rebuilt after the earthquake of 1316. It was further altered in 1521-1547.

Cathedral of San Geminiano, Modena: the Porta Regia flanked by lions

Anselmo da Campione (fl. 1160-1175)
NOTES: Construction on the cathedral began in 1099 under the direction of the masterbuilder Lanfranco. It was consecrated in 1184. The Porta Regia was added in 1209-1231 by Anselmo da Campione and his heirs. The lions, probably discovered while digging the foundations, are of Roman age.

Penguin Pool, London Zoo, Regent's Park, London: penguins at play

Lubetkin Drake & Tecton
NOTES: This was Tecton's second commission for the Royal Zoological Society, the site consisting of a series of derelict ponds and a paddock. A dramatic design was needed to show off the antics of the penguins and this was achieved by two cantilevered ramps spiralling around one another without any intermediate support. The surrounding trees were kept and a cover provided around part of the elliptical structure to protect the penguins from the sun. The flat paths were coated with plastic rubber, the steps were of slate and the concrete ramps were kept wet by a revolving fountain. The structure was allowed under a clause in the London Building Act which exempted from the regulations buildings under a certain size which were not destined for human habitation and which were more than 30 ft from any other building. The pool had been allowed to fall into a state of disrepair after the Royal Zoological Society encountered strong opposition to its plans for major alterations in 1951. The pool was listed in 1970 and restored in 1988. The executive architects were Lubetkin and Drake.

Trafalgar Square, London: detail of the head and front paws of one of the lions with the spire of St Martin-in-the-Fields in the background

Lutyens, Sir Edwin Landseer (1869-1944)
NOTES: The lions were designed by Sir Edwin Landseer and cast by Carlo Marochetti in 1858-1867.

Polar Bear Pit, Dudley Zoo, Dudley Castle: visitors watching the polar bears from the circular terrace

Lubetkin & Tecton
NOTES: Lubetkin and Tecton adapted a deep natural ravine to provide these three enclosures with the circular polar bear arena situated in the centre ringed by an elevated terrace. This terrace spanned the ravine and afforded excellent viewing facilities for spectators. In addition there were lower viewing areas and the lions and tigers could roam over the various concrete slabs placed at differing levels in the steeply-sided ravine. For the polar bears a diving ramp and an eight-foot deep swimming-pool were provided.